News Briefs for One-Tracked Minds
The latest news added June 30, 2015

News Brief Archives



Alweg's 1957 test track

Reinhard Krischer, founder of Alweg Archives (06/30/15)
Cologne, Germany. We have received the sad news of the June 27th passing of Reinhard Krischer, the founder of the Alweg Archives and author of the book ALWEG-BAHN: das Buch zur Technik, Geschichte und Zukunft der legendären Einschienenbahn (in German language, richly illustrated). Krischer succumbed to cancer, which he had been battling for the last couple of years. In 2000 Krischer uploaded his well-known website, the Alweg Archives. He dedicated the website to his father, Rolf Krischer (1911-2000), who was a mechanical engineer for Alweg from 1953 to 1967. The Seattle Center Monorail was his father's most prominent project. The Krischers lived in Seattle from 1962 to 1966. Reinhard wrote us in 2000, "My father had very conflicting feelings and memories about his long years with Alweg." While Alweg GmbH had a sad ending and failed to build systems on its own, the technology his father helped develop has since become the preeminent monorail technology of the world. Just this year the latest Alweg-type monorail opened in Daegu, South Korea. Later in life Reinhard said he managed to convince his father to still be proud of his work. The Monorail Society President Kim Pedersen said, "we are very sad to hear of the passing of Reinhard. We are extremely grateful to him for his many contributions to the ongoing legacy of Alweg." Krischer is survived by his wife Bärbel.

Alweg Archives website


Baguio City Monorail proposed (06/17/15)
Baguio City, Philippines. A feasibility study has concluded that monorail should be built for Baguio City in the Philippines. The line would run 5.2 kilometers from Beguet Provincial Capitol to the Slaughter House in Magsaysay. The one year study was done by the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). The study recommends six monorail cars capable of carrying 120 each. DOST plans to start the project in 2016.

Monorail to ease traffic in Baguio City-Study. Rappler, 06


Nigeria Intamin monorails completion on hold (06/04/15)
Port Harcourt & Calabar, Nigeria. Once again politics are interfering with monorail. In this case, presidential elections in Nigeria have resulted in critics of monorail taking power. Even though the Rivers Monorail system has been successfully tested and another monorail in Calabar is near completion, the new governors in the Rivers State (Port Harcourt) and Cross River State (Calabar) say they need time to sort out priorities and will then make decisions about completing the monorails or not. Intamin remains confident that work will resume later this year, considering how close to completion both monorails are.

TMS Calabar Monorail Construction Gallery
TMS Rivers Monorail Construction Gallery


Bombardier may build Cairo Monorail (05/02/15)
Cairo, Egypt. According to Middle Eastern press sources, the Bombardier Company has been chosen to build a monorail system for Cairo. Bombardier is part of an Egyptian-Canadian coalition selected by the Ministry of Housing for the project. Arab Contractors and Orascom Construction Industries are part of the Egyptian side of the team. The USD $1.5 billion system will link the 6th of October City with Giza and Cairo governorates. The seventeen station line will be built in two phases, with the first stage consisting of twelve stations. Construction is due to start in 2016 and the monorail is scheduled to be operational by 2018, a mere 30 months later. The Cairo system will be Bombardier's second monorail in the Middle East, after the KAFD Monorail under construction in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

update 05/04/15. Montreal, Canada. Bombardier has chimed in on all the press about a Cairo Monorail contract being awarded. Spokesman Marc Laforge says no contract has been awarded yet. However, Bombardier states they are finalizing discussions with the Egyptian government for the monorail. Stay tuned!

Bombardier Transportation says consortium finalizing Cairo monorail contract. Brandon Sun, 05/04/15.
Monorail to be established in Egypt by 2018. Cairo Post, 05/02/15.
Egyptian-Canadian alliance to establish monorail train. Egypt State Information Service, 05/02/15.


Newark AirTrain removal announced (04/27/15)
Newark, New Jersey. Yet another Von Roll-built monorail is about to bite the dust, and it was their biggest and final system. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey has announced plans to replace the 19-year old Newark International AirTrain monorail system. The three-mile system cost $345 million to build and carries roughly 30,000 passengers per day between parking lots, a rental car lot, terminals A, B and C, and the nearby NJ Transit/Amtrak station. A report by the Regional Plan Association in 2011 suggested replacing the monorail system. The report said the AirTrain is slow and not suitable to accommodate growth. The Von Roll system has suffered numerous service interruptions because of accidents, maintenance issues and power failures. In 2014, the AirTrain was closed for two months for track repairs. Bombardier purchased Von Roll Monorail after AirTrain was already in place and took over a contract to operate the monorail with the Port Authority through 2022. After Bombardier purchased Von Roll Monorail, no more monorails of its type were built. Bombardier shelved the Von Roll technology in favor of selling their own similar small monorail technologies, which have had a much better operating records. The big question remains, what technology will replace AirTrain?

Newark airport monorail targeted for scrap heap, cost $354M to build., 04/27/15.


Korea's first major monorail opens (04/23/15)
Daegu, South Korea. The long-anticipated first major monorail of South Korea has opened in Daegu. The city is the fourth largest city in South Korea, and the 24-kilometer system connects the southeastern and northwestern sections of the city. Per a contract signed in 2008, Hitachi designed a US $333-million monorail system in Daegu. This is Hitachi's largest order for monorail outside of Japan, and follows systems sold in China, Singapore and United Arab Emirates. Daegu's train design is arguably Hitachi's best to date, and was selected with the input of Daegu citizens from three design choices given. The monorail features three spectacular bridges, two over water and one over an intersection (photo below). The alignment has been enhanced environmentally with a generous amount of landscaping (photos below). The Monorail Society congratulates both Hitachi and Daegu on this fantastic new system. The Daegu Monorail will no doubt be a shining example to many cities on the many advantages of monorail for transit!

Daegu Metro page
TMS Daegu page (more to come in following months!)
TMS Daegu Construction Gallery pages

One of three spectacular bridge features of Daegu Monorail

This image demonstrates the extraordinary landscaping added with Daegu Monorail

The very-green Daegu Monorail


Ecozip: fun monorail in the trees (04/16/15)
Australia. Monorails come in all shapes and sizes. They serve mostly unnoticed in industrial settings. The Monorail Society mostly touts them for transportation. There's no denying monorail riding is fun, no matter what configuration they take on. Ecoline Pty Ltd. has developed a rideable monorail that is perhaps the most fun of them all. The guideway may be the smallest rideable monorail track in the world. A flexible, mostly tubular guideway is suspended from and between trees using a spiderweb of steel cables. Riders are suspended from a very simple monorail 'vehicle' that zips down the track as any roller coaster would, with the use of gravity. Ecoline has focussed their business on the protection of the natural environment at all stages: design, construction and operation. Their structures are designed to allow trees to grow unrestricted. Several installations have enjoyed success in Australia, including a track in Wyong Creek that is one-kilometer long. Ecoline has won several tourism and business awards. More Ecozips are in the works.

Ecoline website
Ecozip page (Ecoline website)
YouTube video

ecozip car


Kuala Lumpur fire (03/30/15)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A two-car monorail train fire caught fire at Titiwangsa Station. The fire was extingquished with the aid of 22 firemen and three engines dispatched to the location. Passengers had been ordered to evacuate upon arrival at the station. The incident began when one of the tires caught fire, similar to a near-catastrophy monorail tire fire thirty years ago in Florida. Just last week TMS President Kim A. Pedersen posted an editorial strongly suggesting monorail operators improve their emergency procedures for just such events. Fire does not wait for emergency personnel.

Monorail service delayed as coach tyre catches fire. Malaysia Insider, 03/30/15.
Fire and Evacuation. TMS Editorial by Kim A. Pedersen


Mumbai Evacuation (03/15/15)
Mumbai, India. Two of Mumbai Monorail's trains, RST5 and RST 9, were evacuated due to a power failure. Mumbai Metropolitan Development Authority (MMRDA) stated there was a power disruption between Bhaki Park and Mysore Colony around 7:58 am. 2 pilots and 11 passengers were lowered to the ground courtesy of the fire department. Power was restored around 10:45 am. Normal operations resumed after full system testing around noon. Maharashtra Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis has ordered an inquiry on the incident.

13 rescued from stranded monorail in Mumbai. Business Standard, 03/15/15.
Fadnavis calls for probe after Mumbai Monorail breaks down, stranding many. The Hindu, 03/15/15.


Qom Monorail progress report (02/17/15)
Qom, Iran. Work continues on Iran's first major monorail system, albeit sporadically. Construction of Phase One, a seven-kilometer, eight-station line from the northeast edge of the city to Motahari Square, is targeted to be complete by the end of this year. The project has been plagued by a lack of funds, sanctions on Iran and local opposition. Phase I is said to be at least 80% complete and near commissioning. The Qom Monorail project manager has been quoted in the press as saying completion of Phase I depends on completion of funding. Opposition to the monorail has come from an Ayatollah in Qom, the caretaker of the mosque containing the Shrine of Fatima Masumeh. The Ayatollah wants the monorail to go underground for 1,250 meters when it passes the mosque as part of the Phase II segment. Project construction currently ends short of the mosque. Undergrounding a portion of track would greatly increase the costs of building Phase II. Completion of Phase II would increase the length of the system to 18 kilometers. Adding to the woes of Qom Monorail, a new monorail car was recently damaged while being transported to the storage/maintenance facility. The Italian-built car (FCF SpA-Furno Railway Construction) was on a truck bed when it struck a bridge that was too low for clearance (link below). Whether Qom Monorail will be completed or not is still an unknown, as major projects often start and stop in today's Iran. Tehran Monorail is an example, the system was well under construction and pylons were in place when the project was halted and demolished.

Photos of monorail car mishap on skyscrapercity website


Dallas Zoo to get rehab (02/13/15)
Dallas, Texas. After several electrical events over the past few years, Dallas Zoo has decided to spend $3 million on its aging monorail ride. In a prepared statement, Dallas Zoo President/CEO Gregg Hudson said, "Our monorail has performed incredibly well for 25 years, serving nearly 4 million guests. It's a safe experience, with not a single injury in that time. But we want to provide only the best experience for our guests, and this renovation is necessary to do that." Upgrades include air-conditioned cars, updated stations and improved electrical and mechanical systems. A diesel-powered tug will be added for the extremely rare events of power failure. Options other than restoring the monorail were looked at, including shutting it down and replacing it with some type of cable sky ride. Cost was a factor in favor of the monorail redo. The Zoo hopes to have the monorail restoration complete by early summer.

Dallas Zoo to spend $3 million to rehab monorail rather than buy a new one. Dallas Morning News, 02/13/15.


Xi'an Monorail is open (01/30/15)
Xi'an, China. After a long government approval process, the Xi'an Monorail finally opened to the public on January 16th. The system features three Intamin P8/48 trains on a 9.6-kilometer, single-line loop system. Each train can carry 48 passengers, hence the designation P8/48. Intamin handed over the completed system to the customer in October of 2012, but the government formal approval process took over two years to complete. Xi'an, with a population of over 8 million, is one of the oldest cities in China. Since the 1990s, Xi'an has been a part of the economic revival of the region. Xi'an Monorail stops at several tourist attractions located around the perimeter of two connected lakes. Stations and track supports have been designed to match historic Chinese architecture.
Photo courtesy of Intamin Transportation

TMS Xi'an Monorail page (includes map)


Innovia Monorail 300 wins Good Design Award (01/12/15)
Chicago, Illinois. Bombardier's Innovia Monorail 300 has won a GOOD DESIGN Award for its latest monorail system from the Chicago Athenaem: Museum of Architecture and Design. The GOOD DESIGN Award is the oldest and most recognised program for design excellence worldwide. The emphasis of the GOOD DESIGN program is on quality design of the highest form, function and aesthetic standard. Bombardier touts its 300 as a "driverless transit system designed on the principles of iconic aesthetics, mass transit capacity and fast-to-build infrastructure." Bombardier is currently delivering two INNOVIA Monorail 300 systems, one in Sao Paulo, Brazil and the other in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Pierre Attendu, President, Systems Division at Bombardier Transportation, said, "Bombardier's award winning INNOVIA Monorail 300 system combines excellence in product design with innovative technologies such as the Permanent Magnet Motor and the BOMBARDIER CITYFLO 650 train control system for driverless operation. INNOVIA Monorail 300 is a truly game-changing solution for city and airport authorities requiring an attractive, cost-effective and fast-to-build mass transit solution."

Bombardier Innovia Monorail 300 System Wins Good Design Award. WebWire, 01/12/15.
TMS Bombardier Innovia Monorail 300 Technical Page
Chicago Athenaeum is an International Museum of Architecture and Design

Bombardier Innovia Monorail 300 design, two-car configuration
Art courtesy of Bombardier Transportation


Another TMS Exclusive...
Intamin monorail for Da Nang (01/09/15)
Da Nang, Vietnam. Intamin Transportation is completing installation of a monorail system with P6/66 monorail trains for Asia Park in Da Nang. Intamin will finish their work onsite early this year. Asia Park theme park will open later this year. It includes a culture park, amusement park and multi-functional arena/center. Once completed, the park is expected to welcome about 2.5 million visitors each year. Eight Intamin monorail P6/66 will serve the park for transport between three stations as well as providing sightseeing views. More than 2,000 passengers per hour can enjoy the 3.0 kilometer-long route in one of the eight driver-operated trains.

A portion of Intamin's track at Asia Park in Da Nang
Photos courtesy of Intamin Transportation Ltd.


Istanbul plans eight monorail lines! (12/31/14)
Istanbul, Turkey. Europe, finally! Per numerous news reports, Istanbul will be the first European city to build a major monorail system. Even more astonishing, a total of eight monorail lines are planned for the city, which actually has both a European and Asian sector. If all lines are built, the city will have over 47 kilometers of monorail. The first lines put out for bid are the Uskudar-Libadiye and Safakoy-Basaksehir alignments. The monorail lines are being established to abolish minibus routes. Istanbul, like many other major cities, suffers from terrible traffic congestion.

'Monorail' routes announced by the Instanbul Metropolitan Municipality:
Beyoglu-Sisli Monorail Project: 5.8 km
Zincirlikuyu-Sariyer Monorail Project: 4.5 km
4. Levent-Levent Monorail Project: 5.5 km
Atasehir-Umraniye Monorail Project: 10.5 km
Sefakoy- Ataturk International Airport Monorail Project: 7.2 km
Maltepe-Basibuyuk Monorail Project: 3.6 km
Kartal-D100 Monorail Project: 3 km
Sabiha Gokcen Airport-Formula Monorail Project: 7.7 km

Routes announced for Istanbul monorail. Daily Sabah, 12/30/14.
Istanbul Monorail Lines announced. YouTube video in Turkish, 12/30/14.


Chongqing completes Line 2 (12/31/14)
Chongqing, China. In ten short years the City of Chongqing has gone from zero monorail to easily the world's largest monorail system. Chongqing Monorail opened the final 11.7-kilometer segment of Line 2 on Tuesday, connecting Xingshancun with the massive station at Yudong. Line 2 and 3 meet at Yudong, where four monorail beams go through the station. With the completion of Line 2, Chongqing Monorail now features an astonishing 80 kilometers of dual-guideway with 59 stations. The monorail is also the world record holder with the most bridges, highest bridges and longest tunnels.

Line 1 (red)- subway
Line 2 (green)- monorail
Line 3 (blue)- monorail


Sao Paulo Line 17 cemetery issue (12/26/14)
Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Cemetery of Morumbi has filed a lawsuit over the routing of Line 17, the city's second monorail project. The disputed area is part of the system's Phase II alignment. Scomi is the main contractor for the monorail. In order for the monorail line to negotiate the cemetery, plans call for an area including 15 graves to be acquired by the monorail project. The graves would be relocated. The Cemetery is suggesting the monorail line should be moved to parallel the area, or go underground. Metro Sao Paulo says the cost of doing that can't be justified. 400,000 daily passengers expected each day on the new monorail may have to endure a delay for the opening as a result. Phase I is currently scheduled to open in 2016.

Cemiterio tenta barrar obra do metro de Sao Paulo. Estadao, 12/11/14.

Line 17 cemetery intrusion to be mitigated with trees.
Art rendering courtesy of Sao Paulo Metro


Florida Keys Monorail proposed (12/21/14)
Florida Keys, Florida. Monorail County Commissioner Heather Carruthers has suggested the county should consider monorail to address the woefully inadequate public transportation to and from the Florida Keys. Carruthers told the Florida Keys News, "I am a huge supporter of public transportation. I didn't buy my first car until I was 40." Carruthers, a former New Yorker added, "We can't make the roads wider and we have more people coming here. I don't think there has been a serious discussion on this issue since 1935 (the year a hurricane destroyed Flagler's Florida Keys Overseas Railroad). The only thing we can look at is buses." As much as she likes the idea, Carruthers acknowledges there probably isn't the political will to fund a monorail project.

Carruthers: Monorail could reduce road traffic., 12/21/14.


4-car trains in Kuala Lumpur (12/20/14)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Testing has successfully concluded and today marks the first day of four-car monorail train service for KL Monorail. The first two of the new Scomi-designed and built trains are today marking a new era for the popular monorail. The new trains incorporate advances made from Scomi's train design for Mumbai Monorail. A third train is undergoing testing and will join the first two in revenue service soon. The fourth train will be delivered on site before the new year. Nine remaining trains will arrive throughout 2015. Rapid Rail Chief Executive Officer, Haji Khairani Mohamed, said, "The entry of the four-car trains undoubtedly marks a new era for Rapid KL Monorail Line. Apart from doubling its capacity, the new trains are installed with additional features for safety, vibrancy and comfort." Rapid Rail has upgraded all 11 stations with new universal access features, extensions of the station platforms and a new direct connection for pedestrians at KL Sentral Station.

photo courtesy of Rapid Rail


Another TMS Exclusive...
Intamin testing P6 trains at Romon U-park (12/10/14)
Ningbo, China. Intamin Transportation has begun testing seven new P6 monorail trains at Romon U-park in Ningbo, China. Romon U-park is an outdoor/indoor amusement complex nearing completion for a 2015 opening. The new park is similar in configuration to Lotte World in South Korea, with both shopping and amusements. The Intamin single-tracked, two-station loop monorail will connect the shopping mall with the various attractions on a 340 mm wide track. The system features seven P6/18 trains with a maximum capacity of 18 seated passengers each. Trains will depart from stations every 2 minutes and operate at up to 16 km/h. The ride will not only transport guests, but its winding path will give passengers an amazing tour of the extravagantly-themed facility, with great views from 4 to 6 meters above the ground level. Up to 1,100 guests an hour will be able to enjoy the circular route.

Intamin Transportation
Romon Upark

photos courtesy of Intamin Transportation (video captures)


Sentosa: 4 hour wait for rescue (12/05/14)
Sentosa Island, Singapore. Following an electrical power outage at 10:10 pm on Thursday eve, some passengers waited on a Sentosa Express monorail train until 2 am Friday to be rescued. 61 passengers and staff were onboard during the incident. The two-car Hitachi Small train stalled between the Beach and Imbiah stations. Originally a rescue train was going to park parallel to the stalled train to facilitate the evacuation, but technical difficulties prevented that train from moving as well. Even though the train was at a relatively low level of the track, one-by-one evacuation took place by means of four ladders. The system has been repaired and resumed operations at 7 am today. Sentosa Island's Guest Experience team today checked up on affected passengers and gave them fruit baskets as a gesture of good will.

61 rescued from stalled Sentosa monorail train. Channel NewsAsia, 12/05/14.


Magdeburg Panoramabahn closed (12/04/14)
Magdeburg, Germany. The loop excursion monorail at Elbauenpark has closed. The four Intamin trains originally operated at Stuttgart's International Horticultural Exposition in 1993. The trains were then moved and served in 1997 in Gelsenkirchen Nordsternpark for the Federal Garden Show. This was followed by installation and operation at Magdeburg for the 1999 Federal Horticultural Show. After 15 years of operation in three locations, a two million Euro overhaul of the system was necessary to continue operation. Ridership had steadily declined over the years as well. A citizen's petition effort to save the system was unsuccessful. The Magdeburg City Council decided to suspend operations at the end of October. The four trains have been transported back to Intamin and the track will be scrapped for recycling in January.

Panoramabahn farht fur immer davon., 11/22/14.


Broadbeach Monorail to reopen (12/03/14)
Gold Coast, Australia. The last remaining Australian Von Roll Type III monorail is set to reopen December 18th. The monorail connects Oasis Shopping Centre and Jupiters Hotel in Broadbeach, but has been close since October of 2013. The system is 25 years old and needed mechanical refurbishment. During this period the trains also received a facelift with new skins and a thorough cleaning. On site retailers have been anxious for the monorail to open again. Oasis Centre is for sale, which puts the monorail's future fate in the hands of whomever purchases the property.

Monorail to ride again at Broadbeach. ABC Gold Coast, 12/04/14.

Broadbeach Monorail-Monorail Society World List pages


Chennai Monorail moves forward (11/20/14)
Chennai, India. The Chennai Monorail project crossed another hurdle today with an 'in-principle' approval from The Ministry of Urban Development. An official stated, "As per the approval accorded last week, the project will be implemented under design, build, finance, operate and transfer (DBFOT) model with entire funding from the State Government, its agencies and partners under public private partnership without any financial support from the Centre." The system is estimated to cost Rs3,267 crore.

Ministry nod for Chennai Monorail. The Hindu, 11/20/14.


Bombardier targets China (11/06/14)
Berlin, Germany. Bombardier Transportation and CSR Nanjing Puzhen Co. Ltd (CSR Puzhen), two of the world's largest rail suppliers, are creating a joint venture to bring INNOVIA monorails and peoplemovers to China. The country has a fast growing market for such systems in urban areas and at airports. Jianwei Zhang, President of Bombardier China said, "We are proud to continue to take an active role in the future of China's rail industry with CSR Puzhen. Together, we will offer cost-effective, medium-capacity INNOVIA transit solutions that can help China's cities to meet their public transportation needs efficiently and sustainably." Bombardier is already active in China's development of mass transit and railways with over 4,000 employees in the country. Pierre Attendu, President, Systems division at Bombardier Transportation said, "This agreement demonstrates the firm commitment of both parties to develop a long-term industrial partnership that addresses China's urgent need for urban and airport transportation."

Bombardier Announces Joint Venture for China. NetNewsLedger, 11/06/14.


Seattle's voters say no (11/05/14)
Seattle, Washington. Seattle's latest effort to build a citywide monorail was defeated in yesterday's election. Citizen Proposition 1 received only 19.6 percent of voter approval. The memory of the disastrous Seattle Monorail Project (SMP) of the previous decade is still fresh, and anything with the word 'monorail' on it is considered toxic. The so-called CenTran proposal reportedly repeated many of the mistakes of SMP, and voters wanted nothing of it. CenTran's chief proponent, Elizabeth Campbell, remained optimistic after the results became evident, stating she, "looks forward to being part of the continuing dialogue in Seattle. This election cycle has also provided an opportunity for the people of Seattle to clearly and publicly acknowledge that there is a transportation crisis in Seattle." Monorail measures have won four times, and now lost twice since 1997.

Seattle's Latest monorail proposal loses big. Seattle Times, 11/04/14.


Egypt's Prime Minister praises Cairo proposal (10/21/14)
Cairo, Egypt. Sometimes monorails get built when the leader of the country supports them, sometimes. Will that be the case in Egypt? Yesterday, Prime Minister Ibrahim Mahlab and an unnamed monorail manufacturer discussed their monorail proposal to link Cairo with 6th of October City. Mahlab stressed that various models for financing could be established for the project, estimated to cost $1.5 billion. The system would be over 20 kilometers in length. The Prime Minister stated the monorail was "a genius solution for traffic."

PM discusses monorail between Cairo, October 6th City. Egypt State Information Service, 10/21/14.


Daegu safety tests under way (10/03/14)
Daegu, South Korea. Rail safety is of major concern to citizens in Daegu. On February 18, 2003, Daegu subway suffered a horrendous arson fire that killed 192 people and injured 151. That disaster led to the decision to build monorail for the city's Line 3. The system was originally scheduled to open this month, yet concerns over safety issues have led to the decision for additional testing. Daegu Metro plans to test the system throughout this coming winter, due to concerns resulting from a major snowstorm that occurred in March of 2010. Two days of evacuation testing recently took place at Mirror Station (Buk-donghodong). Police and fire agencies were involved in the exercise. Daegu Monorail does not have emergency walkways, yet all trains feature 'Spiral Shooter' escape slides for the rare possibility of an extreme emergency situation. Fire suppression operations took place after the evacuation with the use of the water sprinkler system on board the train, external fire hoses and a fire-fighting helicopter. Opening is now planned for the first half of 2015.

Daegu Evacuation
photo courtesy of The Yeongnamilbo

Safety test for Line 3. The Yeongnamilbo, 10/04/14.

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